How it works
- Intracellular gp96 is naturally bound to self-antigens (peptides) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER
- Stress-events such as necrotic cell death can result in the release of self-antigens bound to gp96.
- Extracellular gp96 can stimulate the innate immune toll-like receptors 2 and 4 on Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) to promote activation.
- Uptake of gp96 antigen complexes via CD91 can lead to processing and presentation to T cells.
- We’ve engineered gp96 with an immunoglobulin (gp96-Ig) to constitutively transport predefined antigens of interest to APCs that in turn promote an antigen-specific immune response that includes cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and B cells.
gp96 by the numbers
Clinical Trial Doses Administered
Advantages of a gp96-based vaccine
- Customizable antigen(s) delivery system: gp96 peptide complexes undergo endocytosis mediated by the surface receptor CD91 on APCs.
- Stimulates APC cytokine production and maturation that promotes presentation of the target antigen(s) to lymphocytes.
- Potential to generate multivalent responses to address tumor or pathogen heterogeneity.
- Favorable clinical trial safety profile with the potential for use as a monotherapy or in combination with other approved therapies.
Therapeutic Vaccines in Development
- Oncology: We are conducting a Phase 2 trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of HS-110 in combination with either nivolumab (Opdivo®), a Bristol-Myers Squibb anti-PD 1 checkpoint inhibitor, or Merck’s anti-PD1 checkpoint inhibitor, pembrolizumab (KEYTRUDA®), for the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. Eligible patient populations include individuals in a second line or greater setting, or with pembrolizumab in a front-line maintenance setting.
- Infectious Disease: Combing the immune-activating properties of gp96 and the T cell co-stimulator OX40L with a customizable antigen expression system, RapidVax is an evolution of the gp96 platform currently in development to generate protective immunity against emerging infectious diseases.